Top 15 Examination Question And Answer On Biology For Secondary School Students

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms development, and evolution. Let us consider Top 15 examination question and answer on biology for secondary school students in this article.

Top 15 Examination Question And Answer On Biology For Secondary School Students

1.Question:

What does messenger RNA do during protein synthesis?

Answer:

The role of mRNA is to take the genetic information outside the nucleus so that protein synthesis can occur. During protein, synthesis mRNA serves as the information port that tells ribosomes what proteins to produce. The ribosomes ‘read’ the genetic information contained within the mRNA, and they then send tRNA to bring back the individual amino acids needed to build that protein. Once the pieces are in place, the protein can be assembled and sent wherever it needs to be. Basically, mRNA’s role is to make protein synthesis possible by providing the protein blueprints.

 

2.Question:

What is a turgid plant cell?

Answer:

A turgid plant cell is a plant cell that has been filled with water as a result of osmosis. One of the functions of the plant cell wall is to prevent the cell from bursting when it is filled with water. Instead, the water pressure makes the cell very stiff and firm. When a plant cell is turgid it is experiencing turgor pressure, which is the pressure exerted by the water on the cell wall. Turgor pressure is actually very important to plants because it allows them to grow firm stems that keep them upright. Plants use turgor pressure to stay upright, which is why a plant will wilt and bend over if it does not get enough water.

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3.Question:

Do seals eat shrimp?

Answer:

Seals are carnivores, and they do eat shrimp. They feast on many types of shellfish, including crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters, as well as mollusks such as squid and octopus. Seals eat many different types of fish, as well. Seals have teeth, but often swallow their food whole or simply break it up into large chunks. The molars in the back of their mouths are used to chew up shells and the hard bodies of crustaceans.

 

4.Question:

Enzymes and antibodies are both types of?

Answer:

Enzymes and antibodies are both types of proteins. Proteins are large, organic molecules found throughout living organisms. They are made up of smaller subunits called amino acids. The sequence and number of amino acids help determine which type of protein is made. Protein molecules are very large and have additional structural features due to twisting, folding, and bending of the chain of amino acids.

Enzymes are globular proteins, which are molecules that are ball-shaped. They catalyze chemical reactions in cells when other molecules fit into a place on their surface called an active site. It is specific in shape for only certain molecules. Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins that work for our immune system to keep us healthy. They bind to particular foreign particles such as viruses and bacteria and work to destroy them.

 

5.Question:

How does the structure of the stigma aid in pollination?

Answer:

The structure of a stigma aids in pollination because the stigma is designed to trap pollen and funnel it down the style (a long tube) to the ovary. Most stigmas have small appendages such as hairs or flaps that are designed to catch pollen when a bee lands on the flower, or when the wind blows the pollen in. The stigma also has a wet, sticky coating that serves to rehydrate the dry pollen. This helps the pollen move down the style to the ovary so that pollination can occur.

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1.Question:

What does messenger RNA do during protein synthesis?

Answer:

The role of mRNA is to take the genetic information outside the nucleus so that protein synthesis can occur. During protein, synthesis mRNA serves as the information port that tells ribosomes what proteins to produce. The ribosomes ‘read’ the genetic information contained within the mRNA, and they then send tRNA to bring back the individual amino acids needed to build that protein. Once the pieces are in place, the protein can be assembled and sent wherever it needs to be. Basically, mRNA’s role is to make protein synthesis possible by providing the protein blueprints.

 

2.Question:

What is a turgid plant cell?

Answer:

A turgid plant cell is a plant cell that has been filled with water as a result of osmosis. One of the functions of the plant cell wall is to prevent the cell from bursting when it is filled with water. Instead, the water pressure makes the cell very stiff and firm. When a plant cell is turgid it is experiencing turgor pressure, which is the pressure exerted by the water on the cell wall. Turgor pressure is actually very important to plants because it allows them to grow firm stems that keep them upright. Plants use turgor pressure to stay upright, which is why a plant will wilt and bend over if it does not get enough water.

 

3.Question:

Do seals eat shrimp?

Answer:

Seals are carnivores, and they do eat shrimp. They feast on many types of shellfish, including crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters, as well as mollusks such as squid and octopus. Seals eat many different types of fish, as well. Seals have teeth, but often swallow their food whole or simply break it up into large chunks. The molars in the back of their mouths are used to chew up shells and the hard bodies of crustaceans.

 

4.Question:

Enzymes and antibodies are both types of?

Answer:

Enzymes and antibodies are both types of proteins. Proteins are large, organic molecules found throughout living organisms. They are made up of smaller subunits called amino acids. The sequence and number of amino acids help determine which type of protein is made. Protein molecules are very large and have additional structural features due to twisting, folding, and bending of the chain of amino acids.

Enzymes are globular proteins, which are molecules that are ball-shaped. They catalyze chemical reactions in cells when other molecules fit into a place on their surface called an active site. It is specific in shape for only certain molecules. Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins that work for our immune system to keep us healthy. They bind to particular foreign particles such as viruses and bacteria and work to destroy them.

 

5.Question:

How does the structure of the stigma aid in pollination?

Answer:

The structure of a stigma aids in pollination because the stigma is designed to trap pollen and funnel it down the style (a long tube) to the ovary. Most stigmas have small appendages such as hairs or flaps that are designed to catch pollen when a bee lands on the flower, or when the wind blows the pollen in. The stigma also has a wet, sticky coating that serves to rehydrate the dry pollen. This helps the pollen move down the style to the ovary so that pollination can occur.

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6.Question:

What do tuataras eat?

Answer:

Tuataras eat anything from small insects and arachnids to other lizards and birds and their eggs. These reptiles have teeth and are carnivorous, meaning they are organisms that eat meat. Also, tuataras are nocturnal animals, which means that most of their activity is during the night, including hunting and feeding. Seabirds are the most common bird that the tuataras eat. Seabirds are difficult to hunt during the day, but they are quite vulnerable during the night.

 

7.Question:

Is there DNA in your food? How do you know?

Answer :

Yes, there is DNA in your food. We know this because humans can only eat other types of living creatures, such as fish, fruits, beans, and pork. All of these living creatures, from the smallest nut to the largest chunk of steak, need DNA in order to build new cells and pass along their genetic information to their offspring. Since humans cannot eat non-living things such as rocks, there is no way to have a meal without consuming DNA.

 

8.Question:

What does parasitism mean?

Answer :

Parasitism is a one-sided relationship, beneficially speaking, between two organisms. In this case, the parasite relies on the host for sustenance and/or protection from the elements but gives nothing beneficial to its host.

 

9.Question:

Define the digestive system

Answer:

The digestive system is an organ system that is responsible for breaking down food into nutrients, absorbing nutrients into the body, then excreting the remaining waste material. It is made up of the organs of the digestive tract, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. The digestive system also includes accessory organs, such as the liver and gallbladder, that produce digestive juices and assist in the digestion and absorption processes.

 

10.Question:

What is cross-pollination?

Answer :

Cross-pollination is a type of pollination where pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma of a different plant. Cross-pollination is often contrasted with self-pollination where pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma of the same flower or a different flower of the same plant.

 

11.Question:

What is the balanced chemical equation for photosynthesis?

Answer :

The balanced chemical reaction for photosynthesis is 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2. In words, this equation tells us that plants take in carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), and capture light energy from the sun. A chemical reaction occurs that rearranges the atoms of these molecules to make a new substance, a sugar called glucose (C6H12O6). Oxygen gas (O2) is also created and is given off as a byproduct. Since matter can’t be created nor destroyed, the same number of atoms that went into the chemical reaction must be present after the reaction occurs. This is why in the balanced equation, we see that six CO2 molecules reacted with six H2O molecules to produce one molecule of glucose (C6H12O6) and six molecules of oxygen gas.

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12.Question:

Why are lipids considered organic?

Answer:

Lipids are considered to be organic because they contain carbon. Organic molecules are those large molecules found in living things that are made up of chains of carbon atoms. Bonded to the carbon atoms are varying combinations of oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen atoms. Lipids are one of four classes of organic molecules, and they contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen only. Examples of lipids are triglycerides, steroids, and phospholipids.

 

13.Question:

What is vascular tissue?

Answer :

Vascular tissue is a living material that makes up the conducting systems of a plant organism. This tissue is only found in vascular plants, namely plants that transport water and nutrients by using tubes throughout the plant. The two different types of vascular tissues are phloem and xylem.

Xylem is the tubes of a plant that bring minerals and water from the roots of the plant to the leaves of the plant. These tubes are especially important with regards to getting the ingredients necessary for photosynthesis to occur in the plant cell. The other set of tubes are called phloem. These tubes are also important because they help bring nutrients to the plant cells.

 

14.Question:

What is the function of EDTA in DNA extraction?

Answer:

EDTA is a chelating ligand, which means that it can donate electrons to form coordinate bonds with metals. EDTA has a complex structure and can donate electrons from any of four oxygen atoms or two nitrogen atoms.

During the cell lysis step of DNA extraction, the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm are broken open. On leaving the nucleus, DNA will encounter enzymes called DNAses, as well as other nucleases, which disrupt the structure of the DNA.

Many of these DNAses require Mg2+ ions as a cofactor. This is where the use of EDTA becomes important. EDTA binds Mg2+ ions, thus depriving nucleases of this essential co-factor. In this way, the use of EDTA prevents the DNA from being disrupted and increases the DNA yield during the extraction process.

 

15.Question:

What is gene splicing?

Answer:

Gene splicing is the process of taking out part of the genetic information. Gene splicing occurs naturally inside eukaryotic cells during protein synthesis; some of the genetic information of mRNA is removed before translation. Typically, the interns, or genetic information that is not expressed, are often spliced out and the exons, or the genetic information this is express, is left for the protein synthesis. When this occurs, new proteins can be made by the cells, adding diversity within an organism.

Gene splicing is also a process that scientists are using to make their own genetic codes for a particular organism. Although this process is quite new in the 21st century and is a little controversial, the hopes of using gene splicing within a laboratory is to help with gene therapy, such as removing any genes that may contribute to disease.

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