Philosophy is the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline. In this article, we will focus on the top 15 examination question and answer on philosophy for university students.
What did Thomas Aquinas compare the senses to?
Unlike many theologians who contemplate the big questions in life, Thomas Aquinas did not try to separate the natural, observable world from the unseen world. In fact, Aquinas viewed the 5 senses (tasting, touching, seeing, hearing, smelling) as an essential way of acquiring real knowledge, even knowledge of the invisible God.
Senses, according to Aquinas, are necessary for knowledge. The knowledge that is gained through the senses is every bit as relevant as the knowledge that comes through academic study. The senses, in this view, are the way human souls (as opposed to minds alone) acquire knowledge.
Why was Leonardo da Vinci considered a Renaissance man?
Leonardo da Vinci was considered a Renaissance man due to his long list of accomplishments across several fields. He was an artist, a musician, an inventor and a scientist. His sketches and paintings include world-renowned pieces like the Mona Lisa, the Last Supper, and the Vitruvian Man. As an inventor da Vinci sketched the designs for a flying machine, a more accurate clock, and a triple barrel cannon just to name a few. He also helped pioneer the detailed study of the human body with his sketches of human fetuses and other body proportions and parts. da Vinci even studied botany, keeping a detailed journal of several plants.
Is hedonism a religion?
Hedonism is the pursuit of pleasure. It is a philosophical or ethical belief, but not a religion. In everyday language, hedonism, together with its adjectival equivalent ‘hedonistic,’ are often used in a derogatory manner. Hedonism is often associated with the Ancient Greek philosophical school known as Epicureanism.
What is one of the latest discovery on mind-body problem?
One of the latest discoveries on mind-body problem is: Chronic and acute psychological stress, which is related to socio-economic status, can become a really big factor in experiencing a heart attack in the future. The reason is it could increase of platelet-leukocyte aggregates rate. According to the study, which was conducted in the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, UT, USA, wives that have husbands who often express hostility during disagreements or conflicts could experience hardening of the arteries more than those that are not. Also, the study suggests that husbands that have controlling wives also experience that way as compared those that do not have.
What did the Enlightenment encourage people to do?
The Age of Enlightenment was an 18th-century intellectual movement that encouraged the people of Europe and America to embrace education and science while questioning traditional authority and religion. Scientific experimentation and reason was a major theme of the Enlightenment, as evidenced by Francis Bacon and Isaac Newton, who used science to make great discoveries about the universe. English philosopher John Locke was also a major influence during the Enlightenment; his writings about natural order, freedom, and government inspired the establishment of the United States of America.
What is the main concern of aesthetics?
Aesthetics is the study of beauty. Classical aesthetics try to find objective measures of beauty. For example, Aristotle came up with his theory of mimesis, which essentially claims that the role of art is to mimic nature. His ideas became the basis for aesthetics for a long time, and this is part of the reason why most classical Western works of art tend towards realism. In the modern age, a new branch developed—together with new forms of art—which claims that beauty is subjective and can therefore only be studied within the limits of personal experience. This position was heavily criticized for being too relativistic and for destroying the search for objective truth about beauty, but it has remained influential, and many modern artists were influenced by it. The works of Dadaists such as that of Marcel Duchamp can be seen as an example of this since they ridicule traditional ideas about art and beauty.
What did Plato critique in his book The Republic?
In order to make the case for his vision of a just republic ruled by wise rulers, Socrates must critique alternative forms of government. In Book VIII of The Republic, Plato describes the discussion between Socrates and his interlocutors about the problems with four forms of government: Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy, and Tyranny. Socrates argues that the four forms of government are inherently unstable and lead into each other in a decay to injustice. Socrates’ critiques balance those systems against his proposal in Book VI of the ideal city.
Living and thinking without reference to a religion are called?
Living and thinking without religion are called ‘secularism.’ It is important to remember that secularism is not synonymous with atheism. Secular people may, in fact, believe in God, but live lives where organized religion plays little or no part in their lives. The corresponding adjective to secularism is secular. Examples: ‘secular thought,’ ‘secular lives,’ ‘secular government’ and ‘secular morality.’
Identify and define each of the three dominant ethical theories in Western philosophy.
The three dominant ethical theories in Western philosophy are utilitarianism, deontology, and virtue ethics.
Utilitarianism states that whatever one chooses to do should be both fair and beneficial for the majority of those impacted by an action.
Deontology focuses on the reasons behind an action as opposed to their results or consequences.
Virtue ethics, on the other hand, focuses on the character of the actor and how that impacted their decision to take part in the act. Virtue ethics looks at the person as opposed to the results or reasons.
The dominant intellectual movement of the Renaissance was called
The dominant intellectual movement of the Renaissance was humanism. Humanism had several characteristics that supported the growth of the Renaissance. First, humanism encouraged Europeans to embrace the ancient Greek and Roman ideals that centered on the study of human potential and progress, studies that medieval culture largely rejected. Second and relatedly, humanism supported a secular worldview, with an emphasis on the individual. As Europe’s elite grew wealthier, they had more time and resources to spend on personal education and pleasure, which in turn led to increased patronage of the arts. Humanism did not take religion out of European life–see the Protestant Reformation and the rise of humanist-educated Spanish monarchs, Charles V and Philip II, in the sixteenth century–but it did help make the Renaissance possible and, with it, the rise of the modern world.
What was Plato’s ideal society?
Who preserved the ideas of Socrates in his writings?
The Greek philosopher, Plato, preserved the ideas of Socrates by writing his own stories and books about how his life and Socrates’ life overlapped. Plato was the most famous student of Socrates, and many of Plato’s writings are dialogues with his former teacher. Although we do not have any of Socrates’ teachings in his own words, we know so much about him from Plato’s writings that we can attribute many ideas and concepts to Socrates. Most famously, the use of asking pointed questions to come to a conclusion or an agreement is known as the Socratic Method, since the philosopher was famous for asking many questions during a debate.
The geocentric model of the universe stated that
The geocentric model stated that the earth was the center of the universe and that celestial bodies such as the sun, moon, and stars revolved around it.
Geocentrism is in contrast to heliocentrism, the view proposed by Copernicus and championed by Galileo. From at least the time of Aristotle, most educated people believed in the geocentric model. The heliocentric model gained acceptance after Galileo’s death in the 17th century.
What was Plato’s ideal society?
In Plato’s Republic, he describes his ideal society in the context of dialogues with Socrates. The rulers or administrators of this ideal city were called guardians and were intended to be philosopher-kings – skilled thinkers and military leaders. A subgroup of the guardian class would be the auxiliaries, the soldiers of the city. The farmers and craftsmen would form a third class, respected and essential for a successful society. In order to make sure that all the classes would be satisfied with their place in society, Plato devised a metaphor about the value of metals – gold, silver, and bronze – assigned to the groups by the gods.
The Socratic method is named after what Greek philosopher?
The Socratic method is named after Socrates (c.470-399 BCE). It is made up of a continuous dialogue consisting of questions and answers. There are no surviving texts from Socrates, and what is known about his method comes from Plato.
Who wrote the book Utopia?
Utopia is a 1516 literary work written by Sir Thomas More, an English lawyer, philosopher, and statesman. The book explores More’s vision of a perfect world, which More calls a Utopia (meaning no place). More likely wrote the book to critique many trends and issues that he saw in English and European society at the time, although scholars are still debating what his specific purpose was in writing it.